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Energetic value of food


Lince extreme ancient time there are the conception about the existance of a special alive energy or alive power. In 8-5 centuries B.C. chineese called it. Some people consider that an other energy exists side by side with calorific value in food. Unfortunately there is no such energy. Carbohydrates play the role of sources of enerdy in organism, also fats and lessproteins.

It is the energy of these substances what holds up all the processes of vital activity of a person, bath the work of internal organs, his (her) physical labour, his (her) mentat and emotional activity or heat production. Energy, contained in chemical structures of food substances - is not anything else as transformed energy of the sun lights. Really: the green plant catches the sun lights, use this energy for synthese of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and a person gets the accumulated by this process energy of the sun lights either directly from plants, while eating them, or by eating animals, eaten plants. It is no mere chance that famous biologist Timiriazev consided our food as the "tinned" sun energy.

We want to note that in eroupien dicts the metabolizable energy of proteins ans carbohydrates is 4 Kcal/g, fats - 9 Kcal/g ( accordingly, 17 and 37 kj/g). Proteins, fats and carbohydrates are spent not only for energy recieving, but also for building and renewal of the organism's structures. Bisides the carbohydrates have an opportunity to decreas the protein expenditure for energetical needs - when there is enough amount of carbohydrates in organisn, it uses them in the first place, saving proteins.

Vitamins and a number of taste substances do not give energy to organism, but they take place in the processes of regulation of substances exchange, including energetic exchange.


Vitamins

One hundred ears ago there was no such a word "vitamins". The existance of this group of substances was dicovered by russian scientist Lunin N.I. in 1880, and the name was suggested by polis scientist K. Funk, working in London. It happened in 1911.

Vitamins - is a group of various to their chemical origin substances, which are necessary to organism in very small amounts and which are not used by it as sources of energy.

Vitamins take place in the regulation of the various processes of vital activity, and that is why the health emotional dispose, work capacity risistance to illnesses and sexual ablities depend on vitamins' supply.

Vitamins are marked out by letters and figures, for example, vitamin B1. A number of vitamins are represented by related combination, marking by ane for all of them letter, but different figures, for example D2,D3. Besides nowadays the chemical names of vitamins are used more and more often.

So, vitamin B1 otherwise is named thyamin, vitamin C - ascorbic acid.

In the next chapters we shall consider the participation of vitamins in sexual sphere of vital activity, but now we shall limit ourselves by more general information about them. Vitamins B1,B2, PP and some other take part in energetic metabolism of organism, B6 - in amino acid metabolism, B12 and folacin are necessary for the production of red blood cells. In person's body vitamin D turns into hormore, regulating the calcium exchange.

The lack of the many of vitamins are shown at first in a very unspecific symptoms such as apathy, spirithess, high fatiguability, difficulties in concentration of attention and difficulties in learning. The profound lack causes the symthons, typical for the lack of this or those vitamins. So the lack of vitamin C appears in the development of scurvy with gum bleeding, tooth shaking, gum fester. The deep lack of vitamin PP leads to diarchaeas, purificatious, decreasing of mental abilities and sometimes to cutancous lesions with more deepsings. The lack of thyamin is one of the reasous of the development of short breath, heart diseases,and lesions in nervous system (polineuritis). The classical sign of the lack of vitamine B12 and folic acid - is anemia, and of the lack of vitamin B12 also the lessions of nervous system.

The lack of vitamin D appears as rickets in childhood; this disease beins with weakness, disposition to sweat, irrtability, than breaks the development of bones, the legg crooking appears, the chest deformation, the delay of teething. The lack of vitamine A causes the inability of the eyas to adopt normally to dirn light (night blindness), the dryness of corneas appears and then their disfuction and development of wall-eye.

Vitamin E is traditionally considered as vitamin of reproduction, the losk of it causes the suffering of testicles, but as the vitamins of reproduction might be considered many other vitamins, and for the first place - vitamine A. Generally speaking the lack of the most of vitamins leads to breaking of the processes of growing, cellular renewal, i.e. biological phenomens connected with sexual maturation a person and his or her sexual status. The lack of vitamin C, like the lack of vitamins. which participate in oxydation of nutrients (vitamins B1,B2,PP), which are not related to vitamins of reproduction are not less distructive for sexucal sphere.

There is a stable deleesion that fruits and vegetables are the only sources of vitamins.





 
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